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1.                 Analytical Tests 

分析实验 Three tests mus t be run at least once each shift to determine the chemical composition of the electrocoat tank. These tests determine: 为确保电泳槽的化学组份,每班比需对下列三项试验最少检测一次。  Percentage of Solids (N.V) in the tank, 槽液的固体份百分含量(N.V),  pH of the tank, and 槽液的pH值 the conductivity of  the tank. 槽液的电导率 The results of these tests provide data to make day-to-day decisions regarding optimum tank control. 这些实验结果为每日控制槽液使其处于最佳状态提供数据。 At least once each week, a gallon sample of electrocoat bath (hand-dipped) should be taken from the tank and sent to the PPG Lab in Cleveland where these same tests and many more will be run. This check is necessary so that malfunctioning instruments in the field do not go undetected. 每周至少一次从电泳槽中取(手取)一加仑电泳槽液样品送至PPG(天津)涂料有限公司实验室试验。这项测试是必需的,以确保工厂的仪器是在正常的工作而不是在没有检查的情况下进行的。

Electrocoat Solids (Non-Volatile)

             电泳槽固体份(不挥发份) The term solids is used to indicate the weight percent of dry resin and pigment remaining after electrocoat paint is heated at 105° C (221° F) for 3 hours. Thus, if 100 grams of electrocoat paint is heated at 105C for 3 hours and weighs 20 grams upon removal, the solids would equal 20/100 g., or .20 or 20%. 固体分是指在电泳漆在105°C(221°F)是加热三小时后剩余的干树脂及颜料的百分含量。因此,将100克电泳漆在105C使加热三小时,如果剩余物为20克,则固体份相当于20/100或0.20或20%。 A solids "reading" permits the operator to know how much paint (i.e., resin and pigment) is in the electrocoat tank. As the paint is plated out on the job, solids are removed from the tank. Solids, will, therefore decrease. The solids level should be maintained at 20 to 22%. The necessary amount of pigment and resin to be added to the tank depends upon the number of jobs run through the tank. A tank running 70 jobs per hour (JPH) for 16 hours a day will use approximately 1920 gallons of resin and 320 gallons of pigment. Normal tank additions are approximately 1 part pigment to 8 parts resin. Individual products vary.  Low solids tend to produce a lower film thickness. Higher solids, of course, result in a heavier film. The ideal solids percentage for most electrocoat materials is 20.5%. 固体份“读数”是让操作者知到电泳槽中有多少漆(树脂和颜料)。当漆泳涂到工件上时,固体份从槽中带出,因此,固体份下降。固体份应保持在 20—22%之间,需补加的树脂和颜料浆的数量决定于通过电泳槽的工件数。每小时通过70个工件(JPH),每天工作16小时,槽子每天大约需使用1920加仑的树脂和320加仑的颜料,正常槽的补加量约为1份颜料对8份树脂,但要随各槽的情况不同而有所不同。低固体份易于产生较低的膜厚;当然,高固体份会导致较高的膜厚。对于大多数电泳系统来说,理想的固体份是20.5%。 Equipment 仪器: The following equipment for testing solids is required: 测定固体份需用下列仪器:  57mm x 18 mm disposable aluminum weighing dishes 57mm x 18 mm 一次性使用的铝质称量碟;  Balance capable of weighing to within 0.1 mg. 精确度为0.1mg的天平;  Forced-air Convection Oven 强制空气对流的烘箱; Procedure 操作规程:  Weigh the dish. 铝碟称重  Add 1.0 grams of sample and re-weigh. 加1.0克试样于盘中,称重  Perform steps (a.) and (b.) three times. 完成步骤1和2三次(即同时称取三个并列试样)  Bake all three samples at 1050 C for 3 hours. 将三个试样在105C烘干三小时  Remove, cool, and re-weigh the three samples. 取出,冷却,对三个试样重新称重。 Calculations  计算: Solids % = [(weight of baked sample - weight of dish) ¸ (weight of wet sample - weight of dish) ]X 100                   (烘干后碟与样品重-碟重) 固体份%=——————————————————————      (碟与湿样品重-碟重)

Panels and Panel Ratings


Panels of various types are coated in the PPG Lab with paint obtained from individual production electrocoat tank weekly samples. These panels confirm the properties of the tank and show where possible problems may arise. Usually, a weekly sample is retained until a new sample is received. PPG实验室每周分别从各个生产电泳槽获得漆样,并用此漆样泳涂不同类型的钢板,这些样板代表了槽液的性能并预测可能发生的问题。每一试样保存到下一新试样收到为止。 "A" Appearance or Show Panel.  This panel is a smooth steel panel coated at normal agitation for 2 minutes at voltage needed to give 1.2 mil film build with power-off entry. Ramp time is 15-20 seconds. "Normal" agitation assumes an apex depth in a cylindrical coating tube of approximately one inch. Bath temperature is 83 to 95°F for electrocoat samples depending on the tank.  The show panel film and appearance is determined and recorded. Appearance ratings range between 10 (a perfect panel) and 0 (very poor). A show panel with rating of 7 or higher is considered acceptable. "A"--外观样板:样板为正常搅拌下不带电入槽时使漆膜干膜厚度达到1.2mil(30um)的电压下泳涂2分钟的平滑钢,升压时间为15~20秒,“正常”搅拌系指搅拌底部距圆柱形槽底1寸左右。依据各电泳槽槽液的具体情况槽液温度控制在85~95°F(28.31~35°C)之间,对样板膜厚及外观进行测定,记录。外观评价等级为10(最佳)至0(极差)之间,评价等级为7或更高的样板为可接受的。 "C"  Crater  This is a 1 to 10 rating with 10 being best.  This rates the relative number of craters found on 3 (4"x12") panels, and indicates crater contamination of the bath.  These panels consist of smooth and rough steel and are rated for both shallow and fisheye craters.  One fisheye crater on three panels will result in a 5 rating where it may take 10 shallow craters to give a 5 rating.  A low rating should be checked for the number and type of crater as it may indicate oil contamination in the tank. "C"--缩孔:1~10级,10为最好。这是评价在3块样板(4x12)上发现缩孔的相应数目,它表明槽液中含有缩孔污染物。这些样板有平滑钢板和粗糙钢板,用以评价浅坑和鱼眼缩孔。3块样板上有一个鱼眼缩孔将为5级,而存在10个浅坑也为5级。等级低时应检查缩孔的数目和类型,因为这可能表示槽液中存在油污染源。 "L" Panel (No agitation)  (1 to 10 rating)  This panel has the bottom two inches bent to a 90 degree ("L" shape). It is placed in a bath at tank temperature, and no agitation for three minutes.  During this time any dirt in the paint will settle on the horizontal surface.  Voltage is then applied for 1 minute such that 1.0 mil coating is deposited.  After baking, a rating of 1 to 10 is given to the horizontal surface with 6 being acceptable. This panel is done to determine whether or not the tank has proper filtration. The "L" rating is a relative rating and is therefore not as important as the "H" rating. “L”板(无搅拌):(1~10级)。将样板在距样板底部2英寸处折成90°C(“L”型),将其在槽液温度下放入电泳槽中,停止搅拌3分钟此时涂料中的任何灰尘都会沉降在水平表面上,然后泳涂1分钟使漆膜厚度达1.0mil(25um)。烘干后,按1~10等级评价水平面,6级为可接受的。从此样板可以判断槽子有无适当的过滤,“L”板的评价是相对的评价,因此不如“H”板重要。 Rough Steel  One panel with a profilometer reading of approximately 60 micro-inches is coated at normal agitation. This test determines the ability of the paint to coat a rough substrate. 粗糙钢板:取一粗糙度读数近60微英寸的样板在正常搅拌下进行泳涂,这个实验用以评价漆对粗糙底材的泳涂性能。 "H" Horizontal Panel With Agitation (1 to 10)  This panel is similar to the "L" panel and is coated at tank temperature, with agitation for two minutes. A voltage is applied which will achieve 1.0 mil coating.  This panel is a laboratory representation of the horizontal surfaces of the production unit and is therefore extremely important.  A 10 rating is highly desirable and below 7 is unacceptable. "H"--水平样板(有搅拌,1~10级):此样板与"L"样板相似,是在槽液温度,有搅拌的情况下泳涂2分钟。使用的涂装电压要能保证漆膜厚度达1.0mil(25um)。这种样板是生产厂工作水平面状况在实验室在实验室的再现,因此非常重要。10级为最好,低于7级则为不合格。 "THW" Throw Panel. This panel is actually coated as a set of two (4"x18") phosphated panels which are assembled face to face with a 3/8" space between them.  This space is achieved by the use of a slotted rubber strip down each side of the panels.  Only the bottom of the assembly is open for paint and current.  A voltage of 275 volts is applied at 83° F. for two minutes with minimal ramp time.  The panels coat on the outside but the interior coating normally will only coat partially up on the inside of the panels.  The length of the coating distance is measured in inches and recorded.  A throw less than 12" is unacceptable.                        “THW”—泳透力板:此样板实际上使用两块(4”X18”)面对面放置,间距为                        3/8英寸的磷化板经电泳而成。间距是通过在板的两侧安置有槽的橡胶支板                        来实现的,样板底部不封闭。在83° F(28.3C)&275V及 升压时间极短的条                                                   下电泳两分钟。样板的外部能够泳上电泳漆,而内部只能部分的泳上电泳漆                        测量并记录钢板内侧泳涂上电泳漆的部分的长度并记录。泳透力低于12英                        寸(30cm)是不能接受的。       4.3 Measurement of Dry Film Thickness  干膜厚度测量 Use the following procedure to determine the thickness of dry paint films. Instrument operation may very slightly because different manufacturers or models are involved, but basic procedure should remain standard. 按下列生产规程来测定干膜厚度。因为包括不同的生产厂家及型号,仪器的操作可能略有不同,但其基本规程应保持标准。 The instrument should be calibrated before each use. If the instrument is to be ed over long time periods, it should be calibrated every 10 minutes. 每次使用仪器前应校准,如果仪器需长时间使用,应每10分钟校准一次。 The instrument should be calibrated in an area free of vibration or stray magnetic fields such as power lines, generators, or welding equipment. 仪器校准应在无振动区域以及无发电机,焊接设备等干扰磁场的区域进行。 Film meters should be calibrated on a shim of lower film build than that of the test film and on a shim of higher film build than that of the test film. Thus, a suspected film of 0.65 mils should be checked with the meter calibrated on an 0.50 mil shim and on a 1.00 mil shim; and a suspected film of 1.20 mils should be checked with the meter calibrated on a 1.00 mil shim and on a 1.40 mil shim. The low-point calibration should be made with the zero adjustment and the high point with the calibrate adjustment.  Any readings attempted on film builds outside the calibrated range will not be accurate. 一套标准板为固定在磷化钢板上的5块聚酯薄膜垫片,对每套标准板来说额外提供一非固定的垫片(0.50mil)及一平整的磷化板。每一个聚酯膜垫片的厚度均已在Cleveland的PPG电泳涂装实验室中用精确校准过程的层无塑料显示器(Permascope)检测过。 If film builds involving several ranges are to be measured, the meter must be recalibrated for each range.   如果所测膜厚包含几个不同范围,应对每一范围进行校准。 Films of thickness less than that of the 0.50 mil shim can be checked by zeroing on the phosphated panel and calibrating on the 0.50 mil shim. 如果膜厚低于0.5mil,则在磷化板上测零,并在0.5mil垫片上校准。 The mylar shims will, in time, wear and become inaccurate. 随时间推移,聚酯薄膜垫片将因磨损而变得不准确,PPG会根据要求更换其磨损的标准板。 Production substrates may yield substantially different results than those measured on standard phosphated panels. Particular care must be taken for galvanized, zincrometal, Ultrasmooth, and other zinc-coated substrates. Error due to substrate variation can be determined by calibrating on a 0.50 mil shim over the standard phosphated panel and checking the thickness of the same 0.50 mil shim over the production substrate. Any difference between the two shim readings can be used to more accurately determine film builds on production substrates by adding or subtracting the difference to or from the paint film build readings. 客户现场底材与标准磷化板上的测量结果往往有明显的生产差别。对镀锌铁板,含锌金属,超平其它镀锌低材应特别注意。通常在标准磷化板上对0.5mil(12.7um)垫片的厚度可求出有底材变化而引起的误差。任何两个垫片测厚读数可用来精确测量工件底材上的涂膜厚度,即在涂层厚度读数上加上或减去这个差值。

4.4 Soak and Coat Compatibility Test


MATERIALS 材料: One Gallon Electrocoat Bath per Sample 每种试样的一加仑电泳槽液; Test Sample: Oil - As is, 4 grams. With greases, add 4 grams of Butyl Cellosolve to 4 grams of the test grease. 试验样品:如为油,4g.如为润滑脂,向4g 试验用润滑脂中加4g丁基溶纤剂; Unbaked Solids Tin 未烘烤的白铁罐; Coating Setup for Coating (4" x 12") Panels                         泳涂(4x12)样板的泳涂装置 PROCEDURE 规程: Use one test sample for each gallon of electrocoat bath. 从电泳槽中取1加仑试样; Coat one "Before" control phosphated (4" x 12") panel at 1.0 - 1.2 mil film build to determine that paint is crater-free.  Approximate temperature and voltage for fresh, ultrafiltered electrocoat bath is 250v at 83o F. Bake for 20 minutes at 360o F. 泳涂一事先挑好的磷化板(4*12),使涂层厚度为1.0~1.2mil,确定漆无缩孔。作为此实验的标准样板。对新鲜的,经过超滤的电泳漆槽来说,槽液温度和泳涂电压约为83°F(28.3°),250伏。在360°F(182°C)烘20分钟。 For Oil Sample: Add 4 grams to one gallon of crater-free electrocoat bath. 对于油样品,加4g油于一加仑无缩孔电泳漆槽液中; For Grease Sample: Solubilize 4 grams of test grease with 4 grams Butyl Cellosolve in unbaked solids tin and add solution to one gallon crater-free electrocoat bath. 对于含润滑脂样品:在白铁罐中用4g丁基溶纤剂溶解4g润滑脂,然后将此溶液加到一加仑无缩孔的电泳漆槽液中。 Agitate contaminated paint for a minimum of 4 hours 对有油脂污染的槽液进行搅拌,至少4小时. After minimum four hours agitation, coat one phosphated (4"x12") panel. 在进行最少4小时搅拌后,泳涂(4x12)磷化板: Secure an oven and bake for 20 minutes at 360 F. 检查烘箱,在360°F(182.2°C)下烘板20分钟: Rate baked panels for craters and submit panels. 对烘干后的样板进行缩孔等级评价并提交样板: Insure oven used is not contaminated before release for other lab use. 在交付其他实验室使用前确保烘箱未受污染. Crater Ratings 缩孔等级 10              No Craters 10分         无缩孔 9               1-2 Craters 9 分          1-2个缩孔 8               3-5 Craters                        8 分          3-5个缩孔 7               6-10 Craters   7 分          6-10个缩孔 6              11-15 Craters                        6 分         11-15个缩孔                       5               16-25 Craters                       5 分           16-25个缩孔 Fail           26+ Craters 失败         26个以上缩孔 

4.5 Sandwich Compatibility Test


Materials: 材料: Disposable Pipettes 一次性滴管 Micrometer Adjustable Draw Gauge 可调测微压延仪 Paper Clips (Small) 支夹(小) One-Gallon, Crater-Free electrocoat bath (Sample) 一加仑无缩孔电泳漆槽液(试样) Phosphated Panels: 1 Panels = One Sandwich 磷化板:1板=1层 (4" x 6") (Panel A: 5 mil oil bead draw = 10 Drops) a     (4*6)(板A:5mil厚油层=10滴)  b     (4"*12) C     检查用板(4*12) (4" x 6") (Panel B: 10 mil oil bead draw = 15 drops) d     (4*6)(板B:10mil厚油层=15滴) e     (4*12) Procedure 规程: Lay panel "A" (4" x 12") on flat surface and apply 10 drops of oil with pipette to center of panel. 将板”A” (4*12)水平放置,用移液管在板中央滴10滴油;; Set both draw gauge micrometers for 5 mil, position gauge over oil, and pull an even draw to bottom of panel. 将两台测微压延仪的厚度调到5mil,将仪器至于油1上,平稳地拉直板底部; Place "A" panel (4" x 6"), sharp burr edge down, on bottom half of (4" x 12") so that cut edge of (4" x 6") barely covers all oil. 将A板(4*6)毛边向下平放在(4*12)板的下半部,一时(4*6)板刚好覆盖所有的油; Secure two panels together with paper clip on each side. 每边用纸夹加上,确保两块板贴在一起; Coat panel in crater-free electrocoat bath at 83 F, 250V to achieve a 1.25 mil coating. 在83°F(28.3°C),250伏用无缩孔的电泳漆泳板,使涂层厚度为1.25mil. Coat Control (4" x 12") in same paint at 1.25 mil.                                     在同一漆液中泳涂检验用板(4*12),厚度为                                       1.25mil. Reset draw gauge for 10 mil and repeat steps 1 through 5 for panel "B" with one exception: use 15 drops of oil. 重新设置测微压延仪使在B板上形成10mil厚油膜,重复步骤1~5,唯一不同即滴15滴油; Place coated panels flat on a rack with protective spacer panels placed between sandwich panels. 将泳涂好的样板平放在支架上,将一保护性垫片放在夹层板之间; Secure oven and bake panels at 360o F for 20 minutes. 检查烘箱,将板在360°F(182.2°C)烘干20分钟; Rate baked panels for craters caused by spewn oil. 对烘过的板进行因渗油而引起的缩孔等级评价; Insure oven used is not contaminated before release for other lab use. 要确保烘箱未受污染,才能交付其他实验室使用。 Crater Ratings 缩孔等级 10                No Craters 10         无缩孔 9                    1-2 Craters                         9          1-2个缩孔 8                    3-5 Craters  8           3-5个缩孔 7                    6-10 Craters   7           6-10个缩孔 6                    11-15 Craters 6                    11-15个缩孔 5               16-25Craters 5               16-25个缩孔                        Fail         26+Craters                       失败         26个以上缩孔  

本文标签:电泳漆  电泳  固体份  试验  分析  

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